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Trefonen CE Primary School

Learning in love, growing in faith.

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Hawks Class

In Hawks Class children will learn about:

  • Living things and their habitats
  • Light
  • Properties and changes of materials
  • Animals, including humans
  • Evolution and Inheritance
  • Electricity

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR HABITATS

Children will build on their previous learning about grouping living things by looking at the classification system in more detail. They will be introduced to the idea that broad groupings, such as micro-organisms, plants and animals can be subdivided.

 

Children will learn:

  • the names of the broad classification group for plants and animals, including microorganisms, plants and animals
  • that living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals.
  • how to classify plants and animals based on their specific characteristics.
  • that broad groupings, such as micro-organisms, plants and animals can be subdivided into invertebrates (such as insects, spiders, snails, worms) and vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals)
  • how to classify animals into commonly found invertebrates and vertebrates
  • why living things are placed in one group and not another.
  • the significance of the work of scientists such as Carl Linnaeus - a pioneer of classification.
  • how to work scientifically by:
    • using classification systems and keys to identify some animals and plants in the immediate environment
    • researching unfamiliar animals and plants from a broad range of other habitats and decide where they belong in the classification system.

LIGHT

Children will build on the work on light in previous years, exploring the way that light behaves, including light sources, reflection and shadows. They will talk about what happens and make predictions.

 

Children will learn:

  • that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them
  • how to work scientifically by:
    • deciding where to place rear-view mirrors on cars
    • designing and making a periscope and using the idea that light appears to travel in straight lines to explain how it works
    • investigating the relationship between light sources, objects and shadows by using shadow puppets
    • extending their experience of light by looking a range of phenomena including rainbows, colours on soap bubbles, objects looking bent in water, and coloured filters

PROPERTIES AND CHANGES OF MATERIALS

Children will build a more systematic understanding of materials by exploring and comparing the properties of a broad range of materials, including relating these to what they have already learnt about magnetism and electricity. 

 

Children will learn: 

  • how to compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets 

  • that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution 

  • how mixtures can be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating, using their knowledge of solids, liquids and gases  

  • why everyday materials are used for their particular purposes (including metals, wood and plastic), using evidence from comparative and fair tests, 

  • that some changes are reversible, including evaporating, filtering, sieving, melting and dissolving 

  • that melting and dissolving are different processes. 

  • that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes 

  • that some changes are difficult to reverse, including: burning and , rusting 

  • that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda e.g. vinegar with bicarbonate of soda. 

  • how chemists create new materials, e.g. Spencer Silver, who invented the glue for sticky notes or Ruth Benerito, who invented wrinkle-free cotton. 

  • how to work scientifically by:  carrying out tests to answer questions, comparing materials in order to make a switch in a circuit, observing and comparing the changes that take place when burning different materials or baking bread or cakes, discussing the creative use of new materials such as polymers, super-sticky and super-thin materials. 

ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS

Children will build on their previous learning about the main body parts and internal organs (skeletal, muscular and digestive system) to explore and answer questions that help them to understand how the circulatory system enables the body to function. They will learn how to keep their bodies healthy and how their bodies might be damaged – including how some drugs and other substances can be harmful to the human body.
 

Children will learn:

  • the names of the main parts of the human circulatory system, and be able to describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood
  • know the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function
  • know the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans
  • how to keep their bodies healthy
  • how their bodies might be damaged – including how some drugs and other substances can be harmful to the human body
  • how to work scientifically by:
    • exploring the work of scientists and scientific research about the relationship between diet, exercise, drugs, lifestyle and health.

EVOLUTION AND INHERITANCE

Children will build on what they have learned previously about fossils and find out more about how living things on earth have changed over time. They will be introduced to the idea that characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring, e.g. by considering different breeds of dogs, and what happens when, for example, labradors are crossed with poodles. They will learn that variation in offspring over time can make animals more or less able to survive in particular environments.

 

Children will learn:

 

  • that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago
  • that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • that animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution
  • that living things on earth have changed over time
  • that characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring
  • that variation in offspring over time can make animals more or less able to survive in particular environments
  • about the work of palaeontologists such as Mary Anning and about how Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace developed their ideas on evolution.
  • how to work scientifically by:
  • observing and raising questions about local animals and how they are adapted to their environment;
  • comparing how some living things are adapted to survive in extreme conditions, e.g. cactuses, penguins and camels
  • analysing the advantages and disadvantages of specific adaptations, such as being on 2 feet rather than 4, having a long or a short beak, having gills or lungs, tendrils on climbing plants, brightly coloured and scented flowers.

ELECTRICITY

Children will build on their previous learning. They will construct simple series circuits, to help them to answer questions about what happens when they try different components, for example, switches, bulbs, buzzers and motors. They will learn how to represent a simple circuit in a diagram using recognised symbols.

 

Children will learn:

  • why the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer changes with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • how to compare components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • the recognised symbols to represent a simple circuit in a diagram, and how to use them
  • how to work safely with electricity
  • how to work scientifically by:
    •  systematically identifying the effect of changing one component at a time in a circuit
    • designing and making a set of traffic lights, a burglar alarm or some other useful circuit.
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