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Trefonen CE Primary School

Learning in love, growing in faith.

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Puffins Class

In Puffins Class children will learn about:

  • Living things and their habitats
  • Earth & Space
  • Forces
  • Animals, including humans
  • States of Matter
  • Sound and Electricity


Children will learn about their local environment, observe life-cycle changes in a variety of plants and animals and learn about the work of naturalists and animal behaviourists.


Children will learn:

  • the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird
  • the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals
  • the work of naturalists and animal behaviourists (e.g. David Attenborough and Jane Goodall)
  • that there are different types of reproduction, including sexual and asexual reproduction in plants, and sexual reproduction in animals.
  • how to work scientifically by:
  • observing and comparing the life cycles of plants and animals in their local environment with other plants and animals around the world (in the rainforest, in the oceans, in desert areas and in prehistoric times),
  • asking pertinent questions and suggesting reasons for similarities and differences
  • growing new plants from different parts of the parent plant, e.g.seeds, stem and root cuttings, tubers, bulbs
  • observing changes in an animal over a period of time (e.g. by hatching and rearing chicks)
  • comparing how different animals reproduce and grow.


Children will be introduced to a model of the sun and Earth that enables them to explain day and night. They will learn about the way that ideas about the solar system have developed.


Children will learn:

  • that the sun is a star, at the centre of our solar system and that it has 8 planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune (Pluto was reclassified as a ‘dwarf planet’ in 2006).
  • how the earth moves relative to other planets and relative to the sun in the solar system
  • how the moon moves relative to the Earth
  • that the sun, Earth and moon are approximately spherical bodies
  • how the Earth’s rotation explains day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky
  • that a moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet (Earth has 1 moon; Jupiter has 4 large moons and numerous smaller ones).
  • that it is not safe to look directly at the sun, even when wearing dark glasses
  • how ideas about the solar system have developed
  • how the geocentric model of the solar system gave way to the heliocentric model by considering the work of scientists such as Ptolemy, Alhazen and Copernicus.
  • how to work scientifically by:
  • comparing the time of day at different places on the Earth through internet links and direct communication
  • creating simple models of the solar system
  • constructing simple shadow clocks and sundials, calibrated to show midday and the start and end of the school day
  • finding out why some people think that structures such as Stonehenge might have been used as astronomical clocks.


Children will learn:

  • that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
  • about the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces
  • that some mechanisms including levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect
  • that forces make things begin to move, get faster or slow down
  • that friction on movement slows or stops moving objects (e.g. by observing the effects of a brake on a bicycle wheel)
  • about the effects of levers, pulleys and simple machines on movement
  • how scientists, such as Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton helped to develop the theory of gravitation.
  • how to work scientifically by:
    • exploring falling objects and raising questions about the effects of air resistance.
    • exploring falling paper cones or cupcake cases, and designing and making a variety of parachutes and carrying out fair tests to determine which designs are the most effective.
    • exploring the effects of air resistance by observing how different objects such as parachutes and sycamore seeds fall
    • exploring resistance in water by making and testing boats of different shapes
    • designing and making products that use levers, pulleys, gears and/or springs and explore their effects.


Children will learn about the main body parts associated with the digestive system and their special functions (e.g. mouth, tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine)


Children will learn:

  • the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • how to construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey
  • how to work scientifically by
  • comparing the teeth of carnivores and herbivores and suggesting reasons for differences
  • finding out what damages teeth and how to look after them
  • discussing their ideas about the digestive system and comparing them with models or images.


Children will explore a variety of everyday materials and develop simple descriptions of the states of matter (solids hold their shape; liquids form a pool not a pile; gases escape from an unsealed container).They will observe water as a solid, a liquid and a gas and note the changes to water when it is heated or cooled.

Children will learn:

  • how to compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
  • about evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature
  • how to work scientifically by:
  • grouping and classifying a variety of different materials
  • exploring the effect of temperature on substances such as chocolate, butter, cream (e.g. to make food such as chocolate crispy cakes and ice-cream for a party)
  • researching the temperature at which materials change state, e.g. when iron melts or when oxygen condenses into a liquid
  • observing and recording evaporation over a period of time, e.g. a puddle in the playground or washing on a line
  • investigate the effect of temperature on washing drying or snowmen melting.


Children will explore and identify the way sound is made through vibration in a range of different musical instruments from around the world. They will find out how the pitch and volume of sounds can be changed in a variety of ways.


Children will learn:

  • how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
  • that there is a pattern between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • that there are patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it
  • that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases
  • how to work scientifically by:
  • finding patterns in the sounds that are made by different objects such as saucepan lids of different sizes or elastic bands of different thicknesses
  • making earmuffs from a variety of different materials to investigate which provides the best insulation against sound
  • make and play their own instruments by using what they have found out about pitch and volume.


Children will construct simple series circuits, using different components (e.g. bulbs, buzzers and motors, switches) to create simple devices. Children will draw the circuit as a pictorial representation. Children will begin to use the correct vocabulary, including: current and voltage. Children will be taught about precautions for working safely with electricity.

Children will learn:

  • to identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • to identify and name the basic parts of a circuit, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • to construct a simple series electrical circuit,
  • that a lamp will light in a simple series circuit if the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • about common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors
  • how to work scientifically by observing patterns:
  • that bulbs get brighter if more cells are added
  • that metals tend to be conductors of electricity
  • that some materials can and some cannot be used to connect across a gap in a circuit.